Four elementary needs of a person in any situation which are categorized as the integral components of maintaining life are: 1) personal protection, 2) sustenance, 3) health and 4) travel.
The human body is comparatively fragile. Without protection, the effects of environmental conditions (climate, terrain and life forms) and CBRNE conditions may be fatal. you’s primary defenses against the effects of the environment are protective clothing, equipment, shelter, and fire
- CBRNE is an acronym for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and high yield Explosives.
The need for adequate clothing and its proper care and use cannot be overemphasized. The human body’s tolerance for temperature extremes is very limited with clothing being the first line of defense. However, its ability to regulate heating and cooling is extraordinary. The availability of clothing and its proper use is extremely important to an IP, enhancing their body’s ability to regulate temperature. Clothing also provides excellent protection against the external effects of alpha and beta radiation, and may serve as a shield against the external effects of some chemical or biological agents.
Survival equipment is designed to aid IP throughout their event. It must be cared for to maintain its effectiveness. Items found in a survival kit, ground/water vehicle, or aircraft can be used to help satisfy the nine basic needs. Quite often, however, an IP must improvise to overcome an equipment shortage, failure, or deficiency.
The need for shelter is threefold-as a place for protection from the conditions (environmental and socio-political), safety from hazards, and is big enough for equipment. The duration and location of the isolating event will have some effect on shelter choice. In areas that are warm and dry, the need is easily satisfied using natural resting places. In cold climates, the criticality of shelter can be measured in minutes, and rest is of little immediate concern. Similarly, in areas of residual radiation, the criticality of shelter may also be measured in minutes
Fire serves many needs such as providing a source of heat to warm the body, dry clothing, purifying water, preparing food, and signaling
You must be constantly aware of the body’s primary and continuing need for water.
Less important than water initially, the need for food receives little attention during the first hours of an isolating event. Additionally, the human body must have adequate amounts of water to process any food appropriately. The successful will need to overcome aversions to food before physical or psychological deterioration sets in.
Health (Physical and Psychological)
You must be the doctor, nurse, medic, and psychologist. Self-aid and buddy care may be the sole recourse.
Attention to personal protection, sanitation, and personal hygiene are major factors in preventing physical, morale, and attitudinal problems. Safety must be foremost in the mind. One miscalculation with a knife or tool can result in self-inflicted injury or death. In the event of injury or illness, your existence may depend on the ability to perform self-aid or buddy care. In many instances, common first aid procedures will suffice; in others, more primitive techniques will be required . The need for cleanliness in the treatment of injuries and illness is self-evident. Proper use of clothing and equipment can prevent serious medical or physical problems.
Perhaps your greatest strength is a positive and optimistic attitude. An individual’s ability to cope with psychological stresses will enhance successful survival. Optimism, determination, dedication, and humor, as well as many other psychological attributes, are all helpful for you to overcome psychological stresses. Refer to chapter 4 for more information on psychological health.
You may need to travel on land or water to meet any or all of their goals. In any isolating event, you must weigh the need to travel against capabilities and/or safety